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Cocaine crosses the blood-brain barrier via affinity designer product key crack free proton-coupled organic cation antiporter [19] [20] [21] and to a lesser extent via passive diffusion across cell membranes.

A single dose of cocaine induces tolerance to the drug\’s effects. Addicts who abstain from cocaine experience cocaine craving and drug withdrawalwith depressiondecreased libidodecreased ability to feel pleasure and читать больше. It also increases risk of strokeheart attackcardiac arrhythmia, lung injury when smokedand sudden cardiac death. Coca leaves have been used by Andean civilizations since ancient times.

Globally, incocaine was used by an estimated 20 affinith people 0. The highest prevalence of cocaine use was in Australia and New Zealand 2. Topical cocaine is sometimes used as a local numbing agent and vasoconstrictor to help control affibity and bleeding with surgery of the nose, mouth, throat or lacrimal duct.

Although some absorption and systemic effects may occur, the use of cocaine as a topical anesthetic and vasoconstrictor is generally safe, rarely causing cardiovascular toxicity, glaucomaand pupil dilation. Cocaine hydrochloride Gopreltoan ester local anesthetic, was approved for medical use in the United States in Decemberand is indicated for the introduction of local anesthesia of the mucous membranes for diagnostic procedures and surgeries on or through the жмите cavities of adults.

The most common adverse reactions in people treated with Goprelto are headache and epistaxis. Cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant.

The duration of cocaine\’s effects depends on the amount taken and the route of administration. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small \”rocks\” by processing cocaine with affinity designer product key crack free bicarbonate baking soda and water. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoriadesjgner energy and motor activity, and increased feelings of competence and sexuality. Analysis of the correlation between the use of 18 various psychoactive substances shows that cocaine use correlates with other \” party drugs \” such as ecstasy or amphetaminesaffinity designer product key crack free well as with heroin and benzodiazepines use, and can be considered as a bridge between the use of different groups of drugs.

It is legal for people to use Coca leaves in some Andean nations, such as Afvinity and Bolivia, where they are chewed, consumed in the form of tea, or are sometimes incorporated into food products.

The designfr are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea. Coca teaan infusion of coca leaves, is also a traditional method of consumption. The tea has often free recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude freee. While the packaging claimed it had been \”decocainized\”, no such process had actually taken place. The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulationincreased heart rateand mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.

Nasal insufflation known colloquially as \”snorting\”, \”sniffing\”, or \”blowing\” is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine. Cocaine\’s desired euphoric effects are delayed when snorted through the nose by about five minutes.

Affinity designer product key crack free occurs because cocaine\’s absorption is slowed by its constricting effect on the blood vessels of the nose. In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Rolled up banknotes rpoduct, hollowed-out penscut strawspointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, [53] long fingernailsand clean tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine.

The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface such as a mobile phone screen, mirror, CD case or book and divided into \”bumps\”, \”lines\” or \”rails\”, and then insufflated. Subjective effects not commonly shared with other methods of administration include a ringing in the ears moments after injection usually when over milligrams lasting two to 5 minutes including tinnitus and audio distortion. This is colloquially referred to as посмотреть больше \”bell ringer\”.

In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3. Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also the danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug. As with all injected illicit substancesthere is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used.

An injected mixture of cocaine and heroinknown as \” speedball \”, is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose. Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction.

The onset of cocaine\’s desired euphoric effects is fastest with inhaling cocaine and begins after 3—5 seconds. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced affinity designer product key crack free solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates. Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from страница small produft tube, often taken from \” love affinity designer product key crack free \”, small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts.

A small piece of clean heavy copper or occasionally stainless steel scouring pad — often called affinity designer product key crack free \”brillo\” actual Brillo Pads contain soap, and affinity designer product key crack free not used or \”chore\” named for Chore Boy brand copper scouring pads — serves as a reduction base and flow modulator in which the \”rock\” can be melted and boiled to vapor.

Crack is smoked by placing it at fre end of the pipe; a flame held close to it produces vapor, which is then prduct by the smoker. The effects affinity designer product key crack free almost immediately after smoking, are very intense and do продолжить чтение last long — usually 2 to 10 minutes.

Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. The green line is cocaine and any opioid top line in The gray line is cocaine without any opioids bottom line in The yellow line is cocaine and other synthetic opioids middle line in Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion. Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm. Acute exposure to cocaine has many effects on humans, including euphoria, increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increases in cortisol secretion from the adrenal gland.

Aggressive behavior may be displayed by both addicts and casual users. Cocaine can induce psychosis по этой ссылке by paranoia, impaired reality testinghallucinationsirritability, and physical aggression. Cocaine intoxication can cause hyperawareness, hypervigilanceand psychomotor agitation and delirium. Consumption of large doses of cocaine can cause violent outbursts, especially by those with preexisting psychosis.

Crack-related violence is also systemic, relating to disputes between crack dealers and users. Acute exposure may also lead to anginaheart attackand congestive heart failure.

With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed. Although it has been commonly asserted, the available evidence does not show that chronic lroduct of cocaine is associated with broad cognitive affinity designer product key crack free.

Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up bloodbronchospasmitchingfeverdiffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophiliachest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthmaадрес voice, dyspnea shortness affinity designer product key crack free breathand an aching, flu -like syndrome. Cocaine constricts blood vesselsdilates pupilsand increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.

It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain arfinity nausea. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. Cocaine can cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxismwhich can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis. Since saliva is an important mechanism in maintaining one\’s oral pH level, people who desiggner cocaine over a long period of time who do not hydrate sufficiently may experience demineralization of their teeth due to the pH of the tooth surface dropping too low below 5.

Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots. Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the lroduct separating affinity designer product key crack free nostrils the septum nasileading eventually to its complete disappearance. Due to the absorption of the cocaine from affinity designer product key crack free посмотреть еще, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid. Illicitly-sold пол microsoft office latest version 2016 free download free download прикольного may affunity contaminated with levamisole.

Cocaine use cravk to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug. DNA damage смотрите подробнее increased in the brain of rodents by administration of cocaine. Cocaine dependence develops after even brief periods of regular cocaine use [92] and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use.

Crack baby is a term affinity designer product key crack free a child born to a mother who used crack cocaine during her pregnancy. The threat that cocaine use during pregnancy poses to the fetus is now considered exaggerated. Many recall that \”crack babies\”, or babies born to mothers who used crack cocaine while pregnant, were at one time written off by many as a affinity designer product key crack free generation. They were predicted to suffer from severe, irreversible damage, including reduced intelligence and social skills.

It was later found that this was a gross exaggeration. However, the fact that most of these children appear normal should not be over-interpreted as indicating that there is no cause for concern.

Using sophisticated technologies, scientists are now finding that exposure to cocaine during fetal development may lead to subtle, yet significant, later deficits in some children, including deficits in some aspects of cognitive performance, information-processing, and attention to tasks—abilities that are important for success in school. There are also warnings about the threat of breastfeeding : The March of Dimes said \”it is likely that cocaine will reach the baby through breast milk,\” and advises the following regarding cocaine use during pregnancy:.

Cocaine use during pregnancy can affect a pregnant woman and her unborn baby in many ways. Kry the early months of pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage.

Later in pregnancy, it can trigger preterm labor labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy or cause the baby to grow poorly. As a result, cocaine-exposed babies are more likely than unexposed babies to be born with low birth weight less than 5. Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more affinity designer product key crack free to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

Cocaine-exposed babies also tend to have smaller heads, which generally reflect smaller brains. Some studies suggest that cocaine-exposed babies are at increased risk of birth defects, including urinary affinity designer product key crack free defects and, possibly, heart defects. Cocaine also may cause an unborn affinity designer product key crack free to have desiner stroke, irreversible brain damage, or a heart attack. Persons with regular ceack problematic use of cocaine have a significantly higher rate of death, and are specifically at higher risk of traumatic deaths and deaths attributable to infectious disease.

The extent of absorption of cocaine into the systemic circulation after nasal insufflation is similar to that after oral ingestion. The rate of absorption after nasal insufflation is somewhat limited by cocaine-induced vasoconstriction of capillaries in the nasal mucosa. The onset of absorption after oral ingestion is delayed because affinity designer product key crack free is a weak base with a pKa of 8.

The delay in absorption after oral ingestion may account for the popular belief that cocaine bioavailability from the stomach is lower than after insufflation.

Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects. Snorting cocaine produces affinity designer product key crack free physiological effects within 40 minutes and maximum psychotropic effects within 20 minutes. Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for approximately 40—60 minutes affinity designer product key crack free the peak effects are attained.

Cocaine has pproduct short elimination half life of 0. Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Detection of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out.

Dopamine neurotransmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i.



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Lightroom 6 Free Download. Acdsee Free. GIMP Free. Pixlr Free. InDesign Free. How to Get Adobe Illustrator for Free. Adobe Photoshop CC. Adobe Lightroom Classic CC. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson\’s acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction. Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species.

Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or sudden death. Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances.

When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system. Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration. Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent.

The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test. The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content. This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives. According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2.

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis. Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries. Approximately 17 million Europeans 5. About 1. The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities.

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis [] and the U. In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio Treatment with contingency management , such as providing vouchers for retail items contingent upon objectively-verified abstinence from recent drug use, has been shown in randomized clinical trials to significantly reduce the likelihood of having a positive test for the presence of cocaine.

TA-CD is an active vaccine [] developed by the Xenova Group which is used to negate the effects of cocaine, making it suitable for use in treatment of addiction. It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. Indigenous peoples of South America have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca — a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine — for over a thousand years.

The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing. When the Spanish arrived in South America , the conquistadors at first banned coca as an \”evil agent of devil\”.

When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes. In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.

And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists.

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid \”erythroxyline\”, and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie. Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America.

He wrote of the alkaloid\’s \”colourless transparent prisms\” and said that \”Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue. Because of the former use of cocaine as a local anesthetic , a suffix \”-caine\” was later extracted and used to form names of synthetic local anesthetics.

With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant. He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely saltwater. He then submerged a frog\’s legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways. The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in saltwater.

Karl Koller a close associate of Sigmund Freud , who would write about cocaine later experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage.

In an infamous experiment in , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins. His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society.

Also in , Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic. In , William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, [] and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia. In , an Italian doctor , Paolo Mantegazza , returned from Peru , where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples.

He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan , he wrote a paper in which he described the effects. In this paper, he declared coca and cocaine at the time they were assumed to be the same as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of \”a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , and whitening of the teeth.

A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza\’s paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential. In , Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani , which had been treated with coca leaves, to become coca wine. The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink\’s effect. It contained 6 mg cocaine per ounce of wine, but Vin Mariani which was to be exported contained 7.

A \”pinch of coca leaves\” was included in John Styth Pemberton \’s original recipe for Coca-Cola , though the company began using decocainized leaves in when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed. In cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person.

You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work. In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug. Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue. This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcoholic beverages.

No craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug. By the U. By the late Victorian era , cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle \’s fictional Sherlock Holmes , generally to offset the boredom he felt when he was not working on a case. In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee , cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street , costing five or ten cents for a small boxful.

Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. In the song \” Minnie the Moocher \”, Cab Calloway heavily references cocaine use.

He uses the phrase \”kicking the gong around\”, slang for cocaine use; describes titular character Minnie as \”tall and skinny;\” and describes Smokey Joe as \”cokey\”. During the mids, amidst World War II, cocaine was considered for inclusion as an ingredient of a future generation of \’pep pills\’ for the German military, code named D-IX. In modern popular culture, references to cocaine are common. The drug has a glamorous image associated with the wealthy, famous and powerful, and is said to make users \”feel rich and beautiful\”.

In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. In the United States, the development of \”crack\” cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market. The use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late s and early s in the U.

Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood. The estimated U. An American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine.

An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example, \”that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems. This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study was recuperated and published in , including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of [update]. In October it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue rather than increase euphoria by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration.

The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine, or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to \’stretch\’ or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants. The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted and illegal in most contexts in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the Controlled Substances Act. Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia, permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population , but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine. The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime.

Before the early s, the primary problem caused by cocaine use was portrayed by newspapers to be addiction, not violence or crime, and the cocaine user was represented as an upper- or middle-class White person. In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities.

Colombia seized t, the United States t, Europe 79 t, Peru 14 t, Bolivia 9 t, and the rest of the world t. Colombia is as of the world\’s largest cocaine producer, with production more than tripling since This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids.

Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.

An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since Roughly pounds kg of leaves were harvested per hectare , six times per year. The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times.

Several hundred pounds of this mixture were soaked in 50 US gallons L of gasoline for a day, then the gasoline was removed and the leaves were pressed for the remaining liquid, after which they could be discarded. Then battery acid weak sulfuric acid was used, one bucket per 55 lb 25 kg of leaves, to create a phase separation in which the cocaine free base in the gasoline was acidified and extracted into a few buckets of \”murky-looking smelly liquid\”.

Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer.

The pound yearly harvest of leaves from a hectare produced 6 lb 2. Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale. Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca-growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.

Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine. Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations.

The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand.

The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Department of State\’s estimates.

Synthesizing cocaine could eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine , but is rarely done. Natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has four chiral centres — 1 R 2 R , 3 S , and 5 S , two of them dependent, hence eight possible stereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity.

Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas.

Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida. Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.

These include airdrops of to kg 1, to 1, lb in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico , mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of to 2, kg 1, to 4, lb , and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami. Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile. While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants.

Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as \” mules \” or \”mulas\” , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere. The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits. If caught, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone.

Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. These vessels are typically —foot 50—80 m coastal freighters that carry an average cocaine load of approximately 2. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations. In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats , like those used by the local populations.

Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them.

Cocaine is readily available in all major countries\’ metropolitan areas. According to the Summer Pulse Check , published by the U. In the West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among some users; methamphetamine is cheaper, three and a half times more powerful, and lasts 12—24 times longer with each dose.

These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are inexpensive and easily concealed on one\’s body. Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region. Between and , the value of the market remained basically stable\”. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug. For other uses, see Cocaine disambiguation.

US DailyMed : Cocaine. IUPAC name. Methyl 1 R ,2 R ,3 S ,5 S benzoyloxy methylazabicyclo[3. DB Y. D Y. Interactive image. See also: Crack cocaine. Main article: Cocaine intoxication.

See also: Epigenetics of cocaine addiction. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure. Main article: Freebase chemistry. Main article: Crack cocaine. Main article: Biosynthesis of cocaine. Main article: List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use. Main article: Cocaine in the United States.

Main article: Legal status of cocaine. See also: Cocaine in the United States. Medicine portal. ISBN Retrieved 30 April Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 10 September Abingdon: CRC Press. The Neuroscientist. PMID S2CID Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 7 August European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Critical Care Clinics. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Current Medicinal Chemistry. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Office-Based Laryngeal Surgery. USA: Springer. Analysis of the role of the proton-organic cation antiporter\”.

Biochemical Pharmacology. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. October The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. PMC Frontiers in Neurology. June European Psychiatry. Annual Review of Psychology. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Journal of Anthropological Research. Economic Botany. British Journal of Hospital Medicine.

Drug Enforcement Agency. Retrieved 17 June The Laryngoscope Review. Drug Safety. Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence. Archived from the original on 30 April International medical guide for ships. Drug and Alcohol Dependence Systematic Review. Her research interests include HIV vaccine research, microbicide research and other biomedical and behavioural interventions, and she is an investigator in testing two HIV vaccine regimens in late stage clinical development. He has been an author on over manuscripts in the field of infectious diseases and has an extensive track record in infectious diseases research and practice covering clinical, laboratory and epidemiological aspects.

He is an HIV and TB immunologist focused on studying the immune response to these pathogens in affected tissues, and how this relates to what can be observed from the blood. The research goal is to improve understanding of the immunopathology of TB and HIV, using this information to aid in developing novel therapeutic approaches and diagnostic biomarkers. His research has centered on understanding the mechanisms by which the human immune system recognises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis M.

His work has a strong translational component, asking if both classically and non-classically restricted T cells are associated with infection with M.


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